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Contents xi Fascist Challenge and Antifascist Response, 1934–1939 772 European Fascism and the Popular Front Response 772 From Democracy to Civil War in Spain, 1931–1939 773 France in the Era of the Popular Front 775 The Coming of World War II, 1935–1939 777 The Reorientation of Fascist Italy 777 Restoring German Sovereignty, 1935–1936 778 Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Appeasement 778 Poland, the Nazi-Soviet Pact, and the Coming of War 780 IMPORTANT EVENTS 781 German Military Successes, 1939–1941 785 Initial Conquests and “Phony War” 785 The Fall of France, 1940 786 Winston Churchill and the Battle of Britain 786 Italian Intervention and the Spread of the War 789 The Assault on the Soviet Union and the Nazi New Order 790 An Ambiguous Outcome, 1941–1942 790 Hitler’s New Order 791 The Holocaust 793 Collaboration in Nazi Europe 796 Toward the Soviet Triumph 796 A Global War, 1941–1944 798 Japan and the Origins of the Pacific War 798 The United States in Europe and the Pacific 799 The Search for a Second Front in Europe 801 The Shape of the Allied Victory, 1944–1945 803 The Yalta Conference: Shaping the Postwar World 803 Victory in Europe 805 The Potsdam Conference and the Question of Germany 805 The Atomic Bomb and the Capitulation of Japan 806 Death, Disruption, and the Question of Guilt 808 Into the Postwar World 809 Resistance and Renewal 809 Conflicting Visions and the Coming of the Cold War 811 The Division of Germany 811 The “Iron Curtain” and the Emergence of a Bipolar World 812 The West and the New World Agenda 813 IMPORTANT EVENTS 816 28 THE ERA OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR, 1939–1949 783 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

Locate your local o ce at: international.cengage.com/region Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. 1715–1789 505 19 An Age of Revolution, 1789–1815 537 20 The Industrial Transformation of Europe, 1750–1850 568 21 Restoration, Reform, and Revolution, 1814–1848 589 22 Nationalism and Political Reform, 1850–1880 619 23 The Age of Optimism, 1850–1880 645 24 Imperialism and Escalating Tensions, 1880–1914 668 25 War and Revolution, 1914–1919 695 26 The Illusion of Stability, 1919–1930 726 27 The Tortured Decade, 1930–1939 754 28 The Era of the Second World War, 1939–1949 783 29 An Anxious Stability: The Age of the Cold War, 1949–1989 818 30 A Continuing Experiment: The West and the World Since 1989 851 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

Library of Congress Control Number: ISBN- : - - - - ISBN- : - - - Wadsworth Channel Center Street Boston, MA USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with o ce locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan. 1640–1715 446 17 A Revolution in Worldview 478 18 Europe on the Threshold of Modernity, ca.

Cohen Late of Indiana University Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section or of the United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher. iii Brief Contents 15 Europe in the Age of Religious Wars, 1560–1648 414 16 Europe in the Age of Louis XIV, ca.

Contents vii Social, Cultural, and Environmental Impacts 578 Urbanization and Its Discontents 578 Social Class and Family Life 580 The Land, the Water, and the Air 583 A Changing Sense of Time 584 Responses to Industrialization 584 The Growth of Working-Class Solidarity 584 Collective Action 586 IMPORTANT EVENTS 587 Restoration and Reaction, 1814–1830 590 The Congress of Vienna, 1814–1815 590 Restored Monarchs in Western Europe 591 Eastern Europe 593 Spain and Its Colonies 595 Ideological Confrontations 596 Conservatism 596 Romanticism 597 Nationalism 599 Liberalism 600 Socialism 602 The Quest for Reform, 1830–1848 605 Revolution of 1830 and the July Monarchy in France 605 British Reforms 606 The Absolutist States of Central and Eastern Europe 608 The Revolutions of 1848 612 Roots of Rebellion 612 Liberals: From Success to Defeat 614 The Nationalist Impulse 615 IMPORTANT EVENTS 617 The Changing Nature of International Relations 620 The Crimean War, 1854–1856 621 The Congress of Paris, 1856 621 Forging New Nation–States, 1850–1880 622 Italian Unification, 1859–1870 623 German Unification, 1850–1871 626 Fragile Empires 631 The Dual Monarchy in Austria-Hungary 631 The Ailing Ottoman Empire 632 Russia and the Great Reforms 636 21 RESTORATION, REFORM, AND REVOLUTION, 1814–1848 589 22 NATIONALISM AND POLITICAL REFORM, 1850–1880 619 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

viii Contents The Development of Western Democracies 638 Victorian Britain 638 France: From Empire to Republic 640 Scandinavia and the Low Countries 642 IMPORTANT EVENTS 643 Industrial Growth and Acceleration 646 The “Second Industrial Revolution” 647 Transportation and Communication 647 Social Impacts of Economic Growth 649 The Adapting Aristocracy 650 The Expanding Middle Classes 650 Middle-Class Lifestyles 652 Improving Conditions among Workers and the Poor 654 The Transformation of the Countryside 655 Urban Problems and Solutions 656 City Planning and Urban Renovation 657 The Introduction of Public Services 658 Culture in an Age of Optimism 659 Darwin and Evolution 660 Physics, Chemistry, and Medicine 661 Birth of the Social Sciences 662 The Challenge to Religion 663 Culture in the Age of Material Change 665 IMPORTANT EVENTS 667 The New Imperialism and the Spread of Europe’s Influence 669 Economic and Social Motives 670 Nationalistic Motives 670 Other Ideological Motives 671 Conquest, Administration, and Westernization 673 Unanticipated Consequences: Rebellion and Colonial War 674 From Optimism to Anxiety: Politics and Culture 676 The Erosion of the Liberal Consensus 677 The Growth of Socialism and Anarchism 677 The New Right, Racism, and Anti-Semitism 678 Irrationality and Uncertainty 680 23 THE AGE OF OPTIMISM, 1850–1880 645 24 IMPERIALISM AND ESCALATING TENSIONS, 1880–1914 668 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

Contents ix Vulnerable Democracies 682 Great Britain 682 France 683 Italy 686 Autocracies in Crisis 687 Germany 687 Austria-Hungary 688 Ottoman Empire 688 Russia 689 The Coming War 690 Power Alignments 691 The Momentum Toward War 691 IMPORTANT EVENTS 694 The Unforeseen Stalemate, 1914–1917 696 August 1914: The Domestic and Military Setting 697 Into the Nightmare, 1914–1916 698 Seeking a Breakthrough, 1915–19 as a Turning Point 702 The Experience of Total War 702 Hardship on the Home Front 703 Domestic Mobilization 703 Accelerating Socioeconomic Change 704 Propaganda and the “Mobilization of Enthusiasm” 705 The Two Russian Revolutions of 1917 706 The Wartime Crisis of the Russian Autocracy 706 The March Revolution and the Fate of the Provisional Government 707 The Bolsheviks Come to Power 708 The Russian Revolution and the War 711 The New War and the Allied Victory, 1917–1918 711 The Debate over War Aims 712 The Renewal of the French War Effort 713 The German Gamble, 1918 713 Military Defeat and Political Change in Germany 714 The Outcome and the Impact 715 The Costs of War 716 The Search for Peace in a Revolutionary Era 716 The Peace Settlement 719 The Cultural Impact of the Great War 723 IMPORTANT EVENTS 724 25 WAR AND REVOLUTION, 1914–1919 695 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.x Contents The West and the World after the Great War 728 The Erosion of European Power 728 Enforcing the Versailles Settlement 729 Communism, Fascism, and the New Political Spectrum 730 Changing Priorities in Communist Russia, 1918–1921 731 From Lenin to Stalin, 1921–1929 732 The Crisis of Liberal Italy and the Creation of Fascism, 1919–1925 735 Innovation and Compromise in Fascist Italy, 1925–1930 738 Toward Mass Society 739 Economic Readjustment and the New Prosperity 739 Work, Leisure, and the New Popular Culture 740 Society and Politics in the Victorious Democracies 741 The Trials of the New Democracies 743 Democracy Aborted in East-Central Europe 743 Germany’s Cautious Revolution, 1919–1920 744 Gustav Stresemann and the Scope for Gradual Consolidation 745 An Uncertain Balance Sheet 747 The Search for Meaning in a Disordered World 748 Anxiety, Alienation, and Disillusionment 748 Recasting the Tradition 749 The Search for a New Tradition 750 IMPORTANT EVENTS 752 The Great Depression 756 Causes of the Depression 756 Consequences and Responses 757 The Impact Beyond the West 759 The Stalinist Revolution in the Soviet Union 759 Crash Industrialization and Forced Collectivization 760 From Opposition to Terror, 1932–1938 761 Communism and Stalinism 762 Hitler and Nazism in Germany 763 The Emergence of Nazism and the Crisis of the Weimar Republic 763 The Consolidation of Hitler’s Power, 1933–1934 766 Hitler’s Worldview and the Dynamics of Nazi Practice 767 Nazi Aims and German Society 769 26 THE ILLUSION OF STABILITY, 1919–1930 726 27 THE TORTURED DECADE, 1930–1939 754 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. 1908–09 (oil on canvas) by Jacques-Emile Blanche (1861–1942) © York Museums Trust, York Art Gallery/ The Bridgeman Art Library For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, - - - For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at Further permissions questions can be emailed to [email protected] in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 12 11 10 09 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Cohen Senior Publisher: Suzanne Jeans Senior Sponsoring Editor: Nancy Blaine Associate Editor: Adrienne Zicht Editorial Assistant: Emma Goehring Senior Media Editor: Lisa Ciccolo Executive Marketing Manager: Diane Wenckebach Marketing Coordinator: Lorreen Pelletier Marketing Communications Manager: Christine Dobberpuhl Project Manager, Editorial Production: Jane Lee Senior Art Director: Cate Rickard Barr Senior Print Buyer: Linda Hsu Senior Rights Acquisition Account Manager: Katie Huha Production Service: Pre Press-PMG Senior Photo Editor: Jennifer Meyer Dare Cover Designer: Gary Ragaglia Cover Image: Sloane Street, London, c.1600–1700 487 The Uses of the New Science 487 Scientific Thought in France 489 Science and Revolution in England 491 The Achievement of Isaac Newton 492 Developments in Chemistry, Biology, and Medicine 494 The New Science in Context: Society, Politics, and Religion 496 The Beginnings of Scientific Professionalism 496 Women Scientists and Institutional Constraints 497 The New Science, the State, and the Church 498 The New Science and Political Thought at the End of the Seventeenth Century 501 IMPORTANT EVENTS 503 The Enlightenment 506 Voltaire: The Quintessential Philosophe 507 The Variety of Enlightenment Thought 508 The Growth of Public Opinion 512 The Arts in the Age of Reason 514 European States in the Age of Enlightenment 516 France During the Enlightenment 516 17 A REVOLUTION IN WORLDVIEW 478 18 EUROPE ON THE THRESHOLD OF MODERNITY, CA. vi Contents Monarchy and Parliament in Great Britain 518 “Enlightened” Monarchy 520 The Widening World of Trade and Production 523 The Atlantic World: Expanding Commerce and the Slave Trade 525 The Growth of Industry 528 The Widening World of Warfare 529 The Pattern of War Within Europe 529 Great Britain and France: Wars Overseas 531 The Costs of Warfare 534 IMPORTANT EVENTS 535 The Origins of Revolution, 1775–1789 538 Revolutionary Movements in Europe 539 The American Revolution and the Kingdom of France 540 The Crisis of the Old Regime 541 The Estates General 543 1789: A Revolution Begins 544 The Phases of the Revolution, 1789–1799 547 The First Phase Completed, 1789–1791 547 The Second Phase and Foreign War, 1791–1793 549 The Faltering Republic and the Terror, 1793–1794 551 The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory, 1794–1799 554 The Napoleonic Era and the Legacy of Revolution, 1799–1815 555 Napoleon: From Soldier to Emperor, 1799–1804 556 Conquering Europe, 1805–1810 558 Defeat and Abdication, 1812–1815 561 The Legacy of Revolution for France and the World 563 IMPORTANT EVENTS 567 Preconditions for Industrialization 569 Why Europe?569 Transformations Accompanying Industrialization 570 Britain’s Lead in Industrial Innovation 571 New Modes of Production 572 Mass Production 572 New Energy Sources and Their Impacts 574 Inventors and Entrepreneurs 575 The Spread of Industry to the Continent 575 19 AN AGE OF REVOLUTION, 1789–1815 537 20 THE INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION OF EUROPE, 1750–1850 568 Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.